Marcin Zuberek, Photographer, Warsaw, Poland.
But when the sun had unsheathed its sword of light and the sombre night was fled in fear, Kai Khosrau commanded that the trumpets of departure sound.
Then the army came before the Shah, and he gave into the keeping of Tus the standard of Kawah, and he bade him lead forth the hosts.
Chaos theory is the study of the unpredictable: nearly identical events that exist in the present and can have drastically different outcomes in the future.
While science and math are the structured systems of knowledge, predictability, rationale, and logic, the chaos theory teaches us that the only law is that there is no law and the only thing that we really know is that we don’t know.
No matter how much man seeks knowledge and attempts to gain control, the unpredictability of nature will always sit beyond our grasp.
The evidence reviewed by political scientist Timo Kivimäki indicates that the “protection wars [fought by ‘coalitions of the willing’] have become the main source of violence in the world, occasionally contributing over 50% of total conflict fatalities.”
Furthermore, in many of these cases, including Syria, as he reviews, there were opportunities for diplomatic settlement that were ignored.
That has also been true in other horrific situations, including the Balkans in the early 1990s, the first Gulf War, and of course the Indochina wars, the worst crime since World War II.
In the case of Iraq the question does not even arise. There surely are some lessons here.